Ryegrasses are known to be the most widely grown cool-season grasses because of their beautiful lush turf and can also be used as pasture and turfgrass.
These two ryegrasses share many characteristics, but their adaptations give them different roles on your lawn.
Unlike perennial that grows during the spring and fall, annual only grow for one season. They also come with a whole lot of desirable traits like their fast-growing ability as a cool-season grass, have a long growing season, have a high nutrient content, and have a high yield when grown in the right environment and with the right nutrients.
Annual ryegrass is a very popular seed for lawns and pasture and it can be grown on its own or in grass seed mixtures.
It’s hairless and has bright green, narrow leaves that are glossy at the back of the blades that grow up to 12 inches long and thrives in the cool wet weather widely grown in pastures.
Annual ryegrass doesn’t like frequent and severe cutting, but you can leave about 2-3 inches which will grow back in 3 weeks. As a cool-season grass, it’s well adapted to sunny conditions and moderate temperatures.
It’s used in overseeding lawns, especially lawns with warm-season grasses. When the warm-season grass goes dormant during winter, overseeding with a cool-season grass like annual ryegrass ensures your lawn stays green throughout the cooler months till it gets warm again and the warm-season grass takes over.
You can also use annual ryegrass to temporarily cover bare ground till you can establish your lawn. Planting annual ryegrass as a cover crops helps the dense roots to absorb excess nitrogen, reduce compaction, control erosion, act as a nurse crop for fall legumes, and increase percolation. This versatile plant is easy to grow and helps to promote healthy soil and plants.
Annual ryegrass is eco-friendly. You can plant it anywhere and is very useful in areas infected with nematodes which can be hard to get rid of except using heavy chemicals.
It’s a very natural and inexpensive solution that is also ecologically friendly. You can easily remove it from an area through mowing, heavy grazing, or turning under before seeding.
Characteristics of annual ryegrass
Both annual and perennial ryegrasses germinate quickly after they’re seeded and can take over your lawn if seeded at the same time as a less competitive grass, but annual ryegrass will die as the summer season starts making room for other grasses to grow.
Excess hot and cold temperatures aren’t conducive for annual ryegrass and it doesn’t thrive in areas with deep shade or during dry weather.
It’s better adapted to well-drained soils and requires a lot of water to thrive.
Perennial ryegrass is a bunchgrass that is widely used as turfgrass and as a high-quality pasture grass for livestock. It’s commonly used as a grass seed mix because of its quick germination and versatility.
It’s often mixed with Kentucky bluegrass, a cool-season grass that germinates slowly, to strengthen it and give it time to repair itself when perennial is actively growing. You can also overseed it in a dormant Bermuda grass lawn to keep your lawn green during the winter.
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It has stiff shinny leaves that grow to about 2 feet tall and form a lush, fine-bladed lawn under proper growing conditions and climate to help maintain your lawn’s color in winter.
This cool-season grass can tolerate wet soils, but does poorly during drought and long periods of high temperatures, low fertile soils during the dry summer, and can’t stand severe winters.
Perennial ryegrass has over 200 varieties that help to improve leaf structure, color, and resistance to drought, cold, diseases, and lower growth for mowing heights.
Perennial ryegrass is not only used as sod for your lawn, but also as a pasture grass. It establishes quickly and produces a high yield over its long growing season, it can tolerate heavy traffic and recovers fast after grazing.
This perennial grass is well digested by ruminants which makes it valuable not only as pasture but also as hay and silage. It has the highest wear tolerance than any other cool-season grass that’s why it’s used in golf courses, schools, parks, baseball fields, and homes.
Perennial ryegrass seed germinates quickly which makes it a good nurse crop. It’s often used in grass mixes because it will provide needed shade to grass like Kentucky bluegrass until it gets well established on your lawn.
However, its clumping growth habit makes your lawn look patchy which most people don’t like. Perennial ryegrass has an appealing pale green color and can prevent soil erosion which makes it the perfect choice for steep and hilly areas.
Characteristics of perennial ryegrass
Perennial ryegrass lawns are the best low maintenance lawns for cool-season grass and are tough and most tolerant to heavy traffic. It’s known for its quick germination, fine texture, shiny green color, and dense forming sod.
It also has a high resistance to disease and insects which makes it a great choice for lawns and athletic covers in cooler areas. Perennial ryegrass doesn’t do very well during long periods of extreme heat or drought and it often stays dormant during summer but has great tolerance to cold than annual ryegrass. It thrives in full sun and does well in partial shade.
Like all ryegrasses, perennial flourishes in well-drained fertile soil and can handle wet soils better than other ryes. It has a bunchy growth without stolons or rhizomes.
Differences between annual ryegrass and perennial ryegrass
While both annual ryegrass and perennial ryegrass share most of their characteristics, their growth cycles are very different. Although both are cool-season grasses, perennial ryegrass has adapted to growing during spring and fall which makes it very hardy. However, annual ryegrass only lasts for one growing season which makes it a less permanent alternative for your lawn. Annual ryegrass just like the name suggests can be planted every year, while perennial has a continuous lifecycle every year.
Annual ryegrass is a course, shiny pale green grass with long leaf blades that roll in the bud and narrow claw-like auricles, and the leaves can grow up to 12 inches long. Perennial ryegrass is a bunchy grass with stiff, glossy leaves that grow up to 1 to 2 feet tall.
Even though these two types of grasses have a similar appearance and are best suited for cooler climate, annual ryegrass is a temporary grass that is used to provide quick color to your lawn when it’s in a dormant state and help to control erosion for only one season. Perennial ryegrass can be used on both permanent and temporary lawns and is an excellent choice when you want to overseed your existing warm-season lawn during fall when it’s dormant.
How to identify your cool-season grass lawn
Medium-sized leaf blades with a soft feel and a dense growth pattern
Lush dark, green color that can last through late fall and winter
Grows aggressively and requires lots of maintenance and fertilization
Medium-sized leaf blades with a coarse texture that grows very dense
The deep emerald green color that will last into late fall
Moderate growth that requires frequent mowing
Fine blade width that grows vertically
Medium to dark green color that lasts all year round
Gets established slowly and recovers slowly
Both annual ryegrass and perennial ryegrass may appear similar, but some distinguishing factors make each unique in its own way. The best thing about these ryegrasses is their fast-growing abilities as cool-season grasses and their versatility.